©2019  Jacqueline P. Leighton. CREATED WITH WIX.COM



  1. Sternberg, R.J., Jarvin, L., Leighton, J., Newman, T., Moon, T., Callahan, C., & Grigorenko, E. (2006). Girls can't do math? The disidentification effect and gifted high school students' math performance. The Arab Journal for Giftedness and Creativity, KACFG, 1, 9-32.

  1. Leighton, J.P. (2012). Strategies for getting published in Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice (EM:IP). National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) Newsletter, 20(2), 5-7.

  2. Rogers, T. W., Gierl, M. J., & Leighton, J. P. (2004, May). Some thoughts on best practices for statistical hypothesis testing. CERA News. The Newsletter of the Canadian Educational Researchers’ Association, 4-7.

  3. Hunka, S., & Leighton, J. P. (1997). Defining Johnson-Neyman regions of significance in the three covariate ANCOVA using MathematicaTM. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 22, 361-389.

Learning & Assessment Strategies


  1. Chu, M-W., & Leighton, J.P. (2019). Enhancing digital simulated laboratory assessments: A test of pre-laboratory activities with the Learning Error and Formative Feedback model. Journal of Science Education and Technology (JOST), 28, 251-264. doi.org/10.1007/s10956-018-9763-z

  2. Leighton, J.P., Guo, Q., Chu, M-W., & Tang, W. (2018). A Pedagogical Alliance for Academic Achievement: Socio-Emotional Effects on Assessment Outcomes. Educational Assessment, 23(1), 1-23.

  3. Leighton, J.P. & Bustos Gomez, M.C. (2017). A Pedagogical Alliance for Trust, Wellbeing and the Identification of Errors for Learning and Formative Assessment. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 0(0), 1-26. DOI: 10.1080/01443410.2017.1390073

  4. Leighton, J.P., Tang, W. & Guo, Q. (2017). Undergraduate Students’ Attitudes Towards Mistakes in Learning and Academic Achievement. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 0(0), 1-17. DOI: 10.1080/02602938.2017.1387230

  5. Leighton, J.P., Seitz, P., Chu, M-W., & Gomez Bustos, M.C. (2016). Operationalizing the role of trust for student wellbeing, learning and achievement. International Journal of Wellbeing, 6(2), 57-79.

  6. Chu, M-W., Guo, Q., & Leighton, J.P. (2014). Students’ interpersonal trust and attitudes towards standardized tests: Exploring affective variables related to student assessment. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 21, 167-192.

  7. Chu, M-W., Babenko, O., Cui, Y., & Leighton, J. P. (2014). Using HLM to explore the effects of perceptions of learning environments and assessments on students’ test performance. International Journal of Testing, 14, 95-121.

  8. Chu, M-W., & Leighton, J.P. (November 2013). Innovation in testing: Stealth assessment of innovative problem-solving skills. (2013 Bateson Award Winning Paper.) CERA News: The Newsletter of the Canadian Educational Research Association, Fall Issue, 6-11.

  9. Leighton, J.P. (2009). Can you learn how to learn for life? Components from expert learning research. Journal of Applied Research on Learning, 2 (special issue), 1-14.

  10. Norris, S. P., Leighton, J. P., & Phillips, L. (2004). What’s at stake in knowing the content and capabilities of children’s minds? A case for basing high stakes tests on cognitive models. Theory and Research in Education, 2, 283-308.

  11. Leighton, J. P. (2001). Reasoning strategies and the fundamental reasoning mechanism. Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books, 46, 407-409.

  12. Leighton, J. P. (1995). Opposition to gifted education: An examination of three related factors. Alberta Gifted and Talented Education, 9, 26-32.

Think Aloud Studies & Cognitive Labs

Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment

  1. Leighton, J.P., & Chu, M-W. (2016). First among equals: Hybridization of cognitive diagnostic assessment and evidence-centered game design. International Journal of Testing, 16, 164-180.

  2. Shute, V., Leighton, J.P., Jang, E., & Chu, M-W. (2016). Advances in the science of assessment. Educational Assessment, 21, 34-59.

  3. Sharma, N., Cui, Y., Leighton, J.P., & White, J. (2012). Team-based assessment of clinical clerkship students is feasible and acceptable. Medical Teacher, 34, 555-561.

  4. Leighton, J.P., Gokiert, R.J., Cor, M.K., & Heffernan, C. (2010). Teacher views about the cognitive diagnostic merits of classroom versus large-scale assessments: Implications for assessment literacy. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 17, 7-21.

  5. Leighton, J.P. (2010).  Review of Sobocan, J., Groarke, L., Johnson, R.H., & Ellet Jr., F.S. (Eds.). (2009). Critical thinking education and assessment: Can higher order thinking be tested? London, Ontario: The Althouse Press. Informal Logic, 30, 116-119.

  6. Leighton, J.P. (2010). Review of Stanovich, K.E. (2009). What intelligence tests miss: The psychology of rational thought. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 51, 144-145.

  7. Cui, Y. & Leighton, J.P. (2009). The hierarchy consistency index: Evaluating person fit for cognitive diagnostic assessment. Journal of Educational Measurement, 46, 429-442.

  8. Leighton, J.P., Cui, Y., & Cor, M.K. (2009). Testing expert-based and student-based cognitive models: An application of the attribute hierarchy method and hierarchical consistency index. Applied Measurement in Education, 22, 229-254.

  9. Leighton, J.P. (2008). Where’s the psychology? A Commentary on “Unique Characteristics of Diagnostic Classification Models: A Comprehensive Review of the Current State-of-the-Art.” Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspective, 6, 272-275.

  10. Leighton, J.P. (2008). Review of Measuring the Mind: Conceptual Issues in Contemporary Psychometrics. Journal of Educational Measurement, 45, 91-93.

  11. Leighton, J.P. & Gierl, M.J. (2007). Defining and evaluating models of cognition used in educational measurement to make inferences about examinees’ thinking processes. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 26, 3-16.

  12. Leighton, J. P., Gokiert, R.J., & Cui, Y. (2007). Using exploratory and confirmatory methods to identify the cognitive dimensions in a large-scale science assessment.  International Journal of Testing, 7, 1-49.

  13. Gierl, M. J., Leighton, J. P., & Tan, X. (2006). Evaluating DETECT classification accuracy and consistency when data display complex structure. Journal of Educational Measurement, 43, 265-289.

  14. Gierl, M. J., & Leighton, J. P. (2004). Review of Item Generation for Test Development. Journal of Educational Measurement, 41, 69-72. 

  15. Leighton, J. P. (2006). Teaching and assessing deductive reasoning skills.  Journal of Experimental Education, 74, 109-136.

  16. Leighton, J. P., Gierl, M. J., & Hunka, S. (2004). The attribute hierarchy method for cognitive assessment: A Variation on Tatsuoka’s rule-space approach. Journal of Educational Measurement, 41, 205-236.

  17. Leighton, J. P., & Sternberg, R. J. (2002). Thinking about reasoning: Is knowledge power? Korean Journal of Thinking and Problem-Solving, 12, 5-25.

  18. Leighton, J. P., & Dawson, M. R. W. (2001). A parallel processing model of Wason’s card selection task. Cognitive Systems Research, 2-3, 207-231.

  19. Gierl, M. J., Leighton, J. P., & Hunka, S. (2000). Exploring the logic of Tatsuoka’s rule-space model for test development and analysis. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 19, 34-44.

  1. Leighton, J.P. (2013). Item difficulty and interviewer knowledge effects on the accuracy and consistency of examinee response processes in verbal reports. Applied Measurement in Education, 26, 136-157.

  2. Leighton, J.P., Heffernan, C., Cor, M.K., Gokiert, R., & Cui, Y. (2011). An experimental test of student verbal reports and teacher evaluations for revising standardized achievement test items. Applied Measurement in Education, 24, 1-25.

  3. Leighton, J.P. & Gokiert, R.J. (2008). Identifying test item misalignment using verbal reports of item misinterpretation and uncertainty. Educational Assessment, 13, 215-242.

  4. Leighton, J.P. & Gokiert, R. J. (2006). Review of Cognitive Interviewing: A Tool for Improving Questionnaire Design. International Journal of Testing, 6, 361-365.

  5. Leighton, J. P. (2004). Avoiding misconception, misuse, and missed opportunities: The collection of verbal reports in educational achievement testing. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 23, 6-15.

  6. Leighton, J. P., & Bisanz, G. L. (2003). Children’s and adults’ knowledge and models of reasoning about the ozone layer and its depletion. International Journal of Science Education, 25, 117-139.

  7. Leighton, J. P., Rogers, W. T., & Maguire, T. O. (1999). Assessment of student problem solving on ill-defined tasks. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 45, 409-427.

Gender Beliefs & Attitudes

Research Methods